Cyrillic Alphabet day in Bulgaria is better known as ‘Bulgarian Education, Culture and Slavonic Literature Day’. It is celebrated every year on the 24th May following the Orthodox Julian calendar.( for Slavic countries that follow the Roman Catholic calendar, Cyrillic alphabet day is celebrated on 5th July)
To many of us around the world celebrating an alphabet sounds an odd thing to do. But in Bulgaria and other Countries that use Cyrillic, it is regarded as a very important national holiday festival. It is equal to that of Liberation Day 3rd March or even that of Christmas day.
Importance of an Alphabet
Using Latin, Greek or any other foreign alphabet allows you to read, write and communicate with other foreign countries.
But why should you have to do that when your speech and culture are different?
Origins of the Cyrillic Alphabet
The Glagolitic alphabet is a writing system which began to develop in the 9th century. As a result of changes over the years it transformed into the alphabet we now know as the Cyrillic alphabet.
It has a most fascinating and interesting story behind it.
During the year 852 AD King Boris of Bulgaria came to the throne. He commanded a very large area of Europe. It was a great military and economical power.
Most of Europe during the 9th century was predominantly Christian. Bulgaria however, was not. Therefore fighting between countries over border territories were always breaking out.
Bulgaria was seen by the other Christian countries to be Barbaric. A nation of pagans who were considered inferior. Many treaties between warring neighbours were always going to be broken.
The Byzantine Empire over the preceding two hundred years had long been the arch enemy of the Slavs. During 863 under Emperor Michael III. War was declared on King Boris.
Due to several unfortunate events of misfortune Boris was eventually forced to make peace with the Byzantines.
Fighting wars are expensive. So, King Boris in his wisdom, decided to align himself with Rome and adopt Christianity. Above all he hoped he could protect his people to ensure security and future prosperity of his Bulgarian Kingdom.
During this period, Greek speaking missionaries began to arrive in Bulgaria, They were preaching from Byzantine Holy Books.
Importance of Cultural Language & identity
The Slavonic language had no writing system of its own. I think Boris knew the importance of this and how the Slavic identity and culture could be eroded away by teaching the Bible in Greek.
At this period in history. The only language or writing of the Holy Scriptures allowed and recognised by the Church were Greek, Hebrew and Latin.
Consequently, Boris became worried that this old enemy would gain a cultural and maybe political influence over the Bulgarian people.
A new alphabet was needed to give the Slavic people not just an identity but a written word that people could pronounce clearly due to speech inflections in different cultures.
Eventually,the Byzantine Emperor was asked to send missionaries who could teach in the Slavic tongue. Seizing the opportunity to spread ‘the word’ two brothers who were half Slavic by birth ( they had a Bulgarian mother) were sent North to appease the situation.
Constantine (Cyril) and Methodius
The brothers were Constantine and Methodius. Soon they began to spread Christianity throughout the Slavic nations. Great Moravia, Bulgaria and Pannonia. (known today as Hungary and a part of Austria)
In 863 they set to work and devised an alphabet which used 26 consonants and 18 vowels. They then began translating the Bible into Slavonic for the first time.
This system became known as the Glagolitic alphabet. It was based on 3 of the holy elements in Christianity
The cross, the triangle and the circle.
They also trained young student monks to develop the alphabet and they soon had a large educated following of disciples.
The Church and the Slavic Cyrillic Alphabet
As mentioned previously writing the Holy Scripture in any other language would be classed as heresy and a big no, no.
Eventually Constantine and Methodius were brought to trial over the conflict of their work. After much debate, Constantine and his brother Methodius gave an award winning speech as to the advantages of allowing translated works of the Bible. As a result were allowed to proceed with their holy work.
In 868 Pope Adrian confirmed the importance of their work. Their translated books were placed on the altar in St Peters Basilica in Rome. Thus making Slavonic the fourth official language in Christianity.
During a visit to Rome that same year Constantine died and it was while on his deathbed he adopted the Christian name of Cyril.
Methodius returned to Great Moravia as Archbishop and continued to spread God’s word in Slavonic.
New Pope New Rules and another chapter to the story.
In 885 AD a new Pope was elected. Unfortunately for Methodius and his disciples he didn’t quite see it the way that his predecessor did. He demanded that the preaching of the scriptures should be told in Latin.
A warrant for the arrest of Methodius and his followers was given.
Methodius died prior to his imprisonment and over 200 of his students were thrown into jail or sold as slaves. Fortunately, 5 of his disciples escaped to Bulgaria. King Boris gave them refuge and all the assistance they needed in carrying on with their work.
Many stories have evolved as to how the 5 monks escaped. Some say King Boris himself ransomed them to enable them to continue work which was so important for Bulgarian culture. Some say they fled in a makeshift raft across the River Danube, while others say it was God’s will.
One story tells that while the Monks were in prison, an earthquake of significant magnitude occurred. The quake collapsed many buildings including their prison. Many prisoners were killed in the falling rubble but several managed to escape when the tremors released the shackles they were bound with and they were able to walk free.
The Bulgarian Cyrillic Alphabet
Two of the five escapees Clement and Naum under the commission of King Boris founded 2 literary universities in Bulgaria. Preslav and Ohrid. Here,thousands of student monks were taught and thousands of transcripts were written into the Slavic language. More importantly, they also went on to create a similar but better version of the Glagolitic alphabet. They named it in honour of their former teacher.
The Cyrillic alphabet was born.
The Cyrillic alphabet, spread from Bulgaria to Croatia. To Serbia, and eventually to Kievan Rus now known as Russia as well as several other countries.
Today, the Cyrillic alphabet is used by 252 million people in 12 different countries. Give or take a few.
The Cyrillic alphabet is also the third official script of the European Union and is the fourth recognised and official language of the Church of Rome.
St Cyril and St Methodius
St Cyril and St Methodius became known as the ‘Apostles of the Slavs’ and were canonized as saints in 1880 when Pope Leo Xlll entered their feast into the Roman Catholic calendar.
In 1980 Pope John Paul ll declared them patron saints of Europe.
Like all Saints Days, it is usually remembered the day of their passing in the case of St Cyril this is February 14th and St Methodius April 6th.
The Cyrillic alphabet is often referred to as the Bulgarian alphabet. It is a unique invention that paved the way for the progress and development for Bulgaria as a nation.
In summary think of the importance of the alphabet to all of us and where we would be without one!